Bauhaus was formed as an art school. At the beginning it had no clear manifesto. It was all about architecture, which supposed to gather all arts under its roof. Year after year, under the leadership of a successful architect Walter Gropius, Bauhaus was developing concepts, designs and techniques. It brought together such 'masters of form' as Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Piet Mondrian, Oskar Schlemmer, Johannes Itten, Josef Albers, Marianne Brandt, Marcel Breuer and many others.
Bauhaus is a philosophy, which was years ahead of its time and changed the face of design. The motto of constantly growing Bauhaus shifted from 'Art and Craft' to 'Art and Technology'. But the main goal remained the same: to create typical form to symbolize the outside world. They believed art should reconcile the great polarities of life: nature and intellect, female and male, negative and positive, static and dynamic, horizontal and vertical.
Collaboration with the Stijl movement brought to the Bauhaus simplicity and functionalism. Three primary shapes - square, circle and triangle and three primary colours - yellow, blue and red supplemented by black, white and grey composed the basic elements of expression. Alongside with modern technology masters of Bauhaus started to produce furniture, lights, utensils, rugs and textiles.
Financial side of the Bauhaus was never properly stipulated and therefore was unstable. Funded by the Government, Gropius was left with the need of bringing in commissions. His practicality saved Bauhaus many times. But occasionally, like with Haus Am Horn, he would pass the profits to his architectural practice instead.
Seeing artworks and designs produced by the students, Gropius thought nothing could prevent healthy sales. Bauhaus would buy the rights to the best work or the work itself. These buys formed the current Bauhaus archive.
Amongst one of the innovations was 'Wassily' tubular chair by Marcel Breuer, designed in 1927. Bauhaus was indeed too far ahead of its times: it took us about half a century to allow these forms into our interiors. Licensing right to this steel furniture lay with Breuer himself, not the Bauhaus. He tried marketing it himself. This attempt had soon failed and he sold the rights to the dealer Lengye, who passed them onto the Thonet company. Had Breuer sold the rights to the Bauhaus instead, the high profits would have secured the institution financially. Bauhaus wouldn't have had to rely on the Government, that constantly doubted new designs. They were seen as too constructivist and collectivist. That side of the Bauhaus philosophy wasn't there to support either the right or the left wing. It was there to make life itself a work of art. But as Bauhaus started to be seen as a political institution, it led to its closure in 1933.